Redefining the limit dates for the Maunder Minimum

Vaquero J.M., Trigo R.M.

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The Maunder Minimum corresponds to a prolonged minimum of solar activity a phenomenon that is of particular interest to many branches of natural and social sciences commonly considered to extend from 1645 until 1715. However, our knowledge of past solar activity has improved significantly in recent years and, thus, more precise dates for the onset and termination of this particularly episode of our Sun can be established. Based on the simultaneous analysis of distinct proxies we propose a redefinition of the Maunder Minimum period with the core ‘‘Deep Maunder Minimum’’ spanning from 1645 to 1700 (that corresponds to the Grand Minimum state) and a wider ‘‘Extended Maunder Minimum’’ for the longer period 1618–1723 that includes the transition periods.