An offline study of the impact of lakes on performance of the ECMWF surface scheme

Dutra E, Stepanenko VM, Balsamo G, Viterbo P, Miranda PMA, Mironov D, Schär C
Boreal Env. Res. 15:100-112

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The model lake FLake was incorporated into the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecastas (ECMWF) land-surface scheme HTESSEL. Results from global offline simulations are presented in order to evaluate the model performance in different climates and assess the impact of lake representation on the surface energy balance.