Spanish Eyewitness Accounts Of The Great Space Weather Event of 1859

Farrona A.M.M., Gallego M.C., Vaquero J.M., Domínguez-Castro F.
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica, Vol 46(3), pp. 370-377. DOI: 10.1556/AGeod.46.2011.3.7

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Exceptional geomagnetic storms were observed in late August and early September 1859. auroras were observed around the world , and telegraph wires were damanged. until now, there has been no evidence published of auroral observations in Spain during this famous space wetaher event. This paper presents Spanish observations that show the aspect of this great aurora from Spain, and the concurrent effects on european telegraph wires. WQe also computed the variation of the geomagnetic declination in Spain during recent centurias to put these records into context.