A Global View of Coastal Low-Level Wind Jets Using an Ensemble of Reanalyses
Lima D, Soares PMM, Semedo A, Cardoso RM
Journal of Climate. DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0395.1.
Global reanalyses are powerful tools to study the recent climate. They are built by combining forecast models with observations through data assimilation, which provide complete spatial and temporal information of observable and unobservable parameters. The reanalyses constitute very valuable threedimensional data of the atmosphere, which make it possible to investigate a panoply of atmospheric processes, such as coastal low-level jets (CLLJs). In the present study, three global reanalyses, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim), the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), and the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2), are used to build an ensemble of reanalyses for a period encompassing 1980–2016 with 6-hourly output. A detailed global climatology of CLLJs is presented based on this ensemble of reanalyses. This reanalysis ensemble makes it possible to explore the ability of reanalysis to represent the CLLJs mitigating its uncertainty and adding robustness. The annual and diurnal cycle as well as the interannual variability are analyzed in order to evaluate the temporal variability of frequency of occurrence of CLLJ. The ensemble mean displays a good representation of the seasonal spatial variability of frequency of occurrence of coastal jets. The Oman and Benguela CLLJs show, respectively, a decrease and increase of frequency of occurrence in the studied period, which are statistically significant during boreal summer and austral spring. The coastal jets have higher mean frequencies of occurrences during late afternoon and early evening. During the season where each CLLJ has higher mean frequency of occurrence, the Oman CLLJ is the most intense and occurs at higher altitudes.